Greetings true connoisseurs of classic cars 1960

The Best-Looking Cars of the 1960s

 

Jaguar E-type Coupe

Jaguar E-type Coupe

The idea for a new E-type sports Jaguar was born in the early 1950s, when the highly successful C-type racing cars were crushing everyone and everything in Europe's toughest road races. They were great cars, but also quite expensive and unsuitable for everyday use. Then the British decided to create a completely new and relatively inexpensive model combining the qualities of road and racing cars.

For the first time convertible and coupe Jaguar E-Type debuted at the Geneva Motor Show in 1961. Incredibly attractive, with sleek, rounded two-seat bodies, they attracted a huge amount of attention. The motoring press was ecstatic, and a huge queue of people lined up at the Jaguar stand to try out the new car or buy one immediately. The car was instantly elevated to the highest step in the automotive hierarchy, although it cost half as much as the nearest competitors. Moreover, the creators declared that the maximum speed of Jaguar E-Type is. 150 mph (i.e. 242 km/h)! In those days, only insanely expensive supercars like the Mercedes-Benz 300SL or Ferrari 250GT could reach such speeds.

The first Jaguar E-Type Series I was technically the most advanced car of its day. It had a sturdy 2-seater steel semi-carrier body with severe aerodynamic shapes, slim bumpers and headlamps hidden under lucite fairings. The car was equipped with the well known from previous models 6-cylinder in-line engine of XK series. It used hemispherical combustion chambers, an aluminium head with two camshafts and a high-performance power system based on three SU carburettors. All this allowed to achieve good performance - with a working volume of 3.8 litres the designers received 265 hp and 352 Nm of torque. Partially synchronised 4-speed gearbox of Moss company was determined in pair to the motor.

By inheritance from sports ancestors Jaguar E received a lightweight tubular chassis, disc brakes of all wheels, rack-and-pinion steering and 15-inch spoke wheels with a quick-release centre nut. The front suspension, as it was supposed to be a sports car, was independent - on double wishbones and with longitudinal torsions as elastic elements. The rear suspension, for the first time in the practice of Jaguar company, was made independent - on lower cross arms with half axles as upper arms. Interestingly, the brakes were mounted not on the wheels, but on the output from the main gear case, which allowed to reduce the weight of unsprung elements.

The interior of the car was designed rather ascetic. It included an extremely simplified dashboard, wooden steering wheel and simple leather upholstered seats. The coupe was equipped with an additional rear door opening to the left, and for easy inspection and maintenance of the power unit the long bonnet was tilted forward along with the front wings, headlights and bumper.

Amusingly, Jaguar's claimed ultimate speed characteristics of the E-Type were somewhat exaggerated. In the standard production version of the 1-tonne convertible accelerated to 210 km/h, and the mark of 96 km/h it overcame in 6.9 seconds. In 1964, an upgraded version with a 4.2-litre engine, reinforced brakes and a fully synchronised gearbox was introduced. Its power did not change - torque increased slightly, and acceleration to "hundred" decreased to 6.4 sec. In 1966, for export to the U.S. were created modifications with automatic 3-speed gearbox, increased by 229 mm wheelbase and saloon with a number of seats 2+2. In 1968, the second series cars with the same engine, slightly modified design and optional power steering were presented.

Three years later, the Jaguar E-Type Series III made its debut. For the first time in the history of the Jaguar brand, the car received a V-shaped 12-cylinder engine. With a working volume of 5.3 litres, the unit produced 272 hp and 473 Nm of torque. Externally, the new Jaguar could be recognised by a chrome grille and slightly "puffy" front fenders. In addition, E-type became more comfortable, received an improved interior, front ventilated brakes and power steering as standard equipment. But the 12-cylinder E-type became heavier (1486kg) and worse to drive. In 1973, the petrol crisis broke out and the popularity of the car went down. 1975 was the last year in the history of the Jaguar E-Type. A total of 72,517 cars were made.

 

Lamborghini Miura P400

Lamborghini Miura P400

The Miura was first presented to the public in November 1965 at the Turin Motor Show. To be more precise, the model was presented in a bodyless version, i.e. as a mobile chassis with an unconventional engine positioned in the middle. The designer Marcello Gandini from the Bertone workshop was chosen to design the body. In 1966, the body and chassis were put together, and in the same year the car debuted at the Geneva Motor Show with the name Miura, named after a breed of Spanish fighting bulls.

All Lamborghini cars were created with only one goal - to surpass Ferrari. Ferruccio Lamborghini built his first fortune in tractor manufacturing. When he bought a Ferrari car, he expected a combination of superior performance and a minimum of problems. But this car did not live up to expectations as all sorts of breakdowns were constantly occurring. Having come to Ferrari with complaints about the poor quality of the car assembly, Enzo hurried to send his client away, saying that the tractor manufacturer does not know about sports cars. Ferruccio was infuriated by Enzo's behaviour and decided to start producing his own supercars, which would be characterised by high quality and performance.

Demand for Lamborghini cars outstripped supply. Initially Ferrucio Lamborghini planned to produce a small number of Miura cars, about 30 copies. However, the demand for this car forced Ferrucio to change his plans. As a result, 3 series of Miura were produced: P400, S, and SV, each of which brought its own special mechanical and aesthetic modifications to the original model.

The P400 was the first series to feature a rear-mounted 4 litre engine ("P" stands for "Posteriore", 400 for engine displacement in cc). The four-litre engine produced 350 hp. The design of the rear and front bonnets resembled a cot mechanism. To top it all off, there were two small luggage compartments.

Production began in March 1967, and the car was sold in the price range from $20,000. The Miura S series began production in December 1968 and made its debut that year at the Turin Motor Show. The "S" stands for "Spinto" (to push through, to get ahead). Thanks to a new combustion chamber and intake system, power was increased to 370bhp. Later versions of the 'S' series were fitted with ventilated disc brakes and modified rear suspension. Air conditioning was fitted at extra cost.

The final version of the Miura series SV "Sprint Veloce" (fast, speedy) was presented in March 1971 at the Geneva Motor Show. The SV was the best version of the Miura series. The wide wheels allowed for improved handling and performance. The front and rear headlights and turn signals underwent some changes and power was increased to 385bhp. A total of 142 examples of the Miura SV rolled off the assembly line.

750 examples of the Miura were produced, the last of which was built in October 1973. Production of this model was halted due to the start of Countach production. By then, the small Lamborghini factory was only able to manage production of one model.

The 1966 Lamborghini Miura changed the idea of what a sports car for public roads could be. It was the Miura that for the first time in history received a mid-engine layout with a magnificent V12 engine, and became the de facto standard in the class of high-performance sports cars. Let's look at the history of one of the most extraordinary and breakthrough cars of its time.

It is not known how the fate of Ferruccio Lamborghini, a successful entrepreneur and manufacturer of agricultural machinery, would have turned out if not for the conflict with Enzo Ferrari, which actually led to the fact that Lamborghini decided to found his own company for the production of sports cars.

The first production Lamborghini 350 GT, which appeared in 1964, was quite successful. It had a two-door body and a front-mounted V12 engine with an output of 280 hp. At that time, this layout for road sports cars was considered the most rational, but on the racetracks was already used more progressive mid-engine layout. This helped to optimise weight distribution between the axles and, consequently, more stable behaviour in high-speed corners.

Work on the successor to the 350 GT began in 1964. The lead designer was Gianpaolo Dallara, and the design was given to Marcello Gandini from the Bertone atelier. The first chassis of the Lamborghini Miura P400 was exhibited in 1965 at the Turin Motor Show, and from the next year the small-scale assembly of the car began.

The car struck everyone - both ordinary people and specialists. Squat, as if floating on the road, it received a rounded two-door body with a pointed front part and a sloping rear. In the middle, behind a huge bent windscreen, was a cramped cabin for the driver and one passenger. It seemed that their seats were on the ground, so low was the ground clearance. Most of all surprised the headlights recessed in special notches on the front wings, which when switched on were raised to a vertical position (a similar design technique many years later would be used on the Porsche 928).

Behind the aluminium body panels there was a chassis with all-metal load-bearing base, independent lever-spring suspensions and disc brakes on all wheels. To make the car as compact as possible, the 12-cylinder engine, for the first time in the world practice, was placed transversely in the central part of the chassis - between the saloon and the driving wheels. With the transverse location of the engine it was impossible to place the manual gearbox in its usual place. Then it was placed under the engine in one block with the main gear and self-locking differential. In addition, the engine and 5-speed gearbox used a single oil circuit.

The Giotto Bizzarini-designed engine was equipped with four overhead camshafts, two twin-chamber carburettors and developed an enormous power of 350 hp. Even with only two valves per cylinder, it was more of a racing rather than a road motor with a "twisting" character and increased noise level.

However, for the owners of Miura this circumstance did not play any role, because at that time their car was considered the fastest in the world! The car weighing 1270 kg accelerated to 100 km/h in just 6.8 seconds, and its top speed of 280 km/h made even the most famous competitors blush. Not without reason the term "supercar" was coined for Lamborghini Miura, which was then fixed for all cars with outstanding characteristics.

Already in the first year Italians managed to realise 108 cars. For a small company with three years of experience in building cars it was a grand success. Moreover, the Lamborghini Miura was incredibly expensive. For the car was asked about 20 thousand dollars or 190 thousand at today's exchange rate!

While the first Lamborghini Miura SP400 did not come off the pages of all kinds of automotive publications, engineers prepared the second generation model. The new car, released in 1970, received the index P400 S and was equipped with a forced up to 370 hp engine and modernised rear suspension. Its further development was a modification P400 SV with a 385 hp engine. Such a car could accelerate up to 290 km/h, and the first "hundred" overcame in less than 6 seconds.

Revolutionary in all respects Miura was produced until 1973, after which it was replaced by no less extravagant Lamborghini Countach. During eight years of production, 763 copies of the Miura were produced.

 

Chevrolet Corvette Sting Ray Split-Window Coupe

Chevrolet Corvette Sting Ray Split-Window Coupe

The second-generation Chevrolet Corvette (C2) was a major breakthrough both technically and aesthetically. This car marked the end of the Rocket Age and the transition to a new era in American design that brought to life the cutting-edge ideas of GM's new vice president of styling, Bill Mitchell. The shape of the Corvette C2 body was influenced by Mitchell's passion for fishing: he was inspired by a mako shark he caught in the Bahamas. But the model got its second name in honor of another ocean dweller - the stingray. The similarity of Corvette C2 with the stingray was noticeable on the racing prototype Corvette Stingray Racer (1959), built by Mitchell on his own money secretly from the GM management. From this car, the production Corvette C2 inherited an unusual shape of the body with a curved plane at the edges, a clearly defined line all around the perimeter and protruding front and rear fenders, similar to the fins of a stingray. This style is attributed entirely to Mitchell, but he was only the originator of the concept, and it was designer Larry Shinoda who put it into practice. As for the internal design, it was the responsibility of "Corvette's father" Zora Arkus-Dantov, who headed the Corvette project since 1955. During the development process, a scale model of the Corvette Sting Ray was tested in the wind tunnel of the California Institute of Technology.

With a 98" (2489 mm) shorter wheelbase, the car was slightly smaller than the 1958-1962 model, but this was a plus for its dynamics and handling. It inherited only the "duck tail" with double round lights from the late Corvette C1. From the front, the Corvette C2 received rotating twin headlights at the very edge of the body, which in the closed position merged with the sharp nose line. Below this line was a horizontal grille intersected by two L-shaped halves of the front bumper. The same divided bumper was at the rear, and under it two exhaust pipes came straight out of the body. On the hood there was a longitudinal bulge in the shape of a rocket and two ventilation grilles. These grilles were non-functional, as were the side openings in the front fenders and rear pillars (on coupes). The roof was low, but the top edges of the doors cut into the side of the roof to make it easier to land. The Corvette C2 had no trunk: in its place was a round gas tank lid with the company logo. 

The coupe had a small luggage rack behind the seats, and the convertible had a panel covering the cargo area, from under which the soft top slid out. The interior of the Corvette C2 was clearly divided into two halves by a transmission tunnel and console; the driver and passenger portions of the cockpit were arched. The instrument panel consisted of large speedometer and tachometer dials and four smaller round gauges with unusual curved hands. The clock and radio were placed on the console.

In the official name of the production Corvette C2, the word Sting Ray was spelled separately, literally meaning "stinging ray". Here we can see a hint of the long tail of the stingray, which was expressed in the form of a tapering cone-shaped roof with a thin lintel dividing the rear window into two halves. This stylistic device, invented by Bob McLean for the Q-Corvette concept, appealed to Bill Mitchell so much that he wouldn't listen to those who insisted on using all-glass. It was only when customers began complaining about poor rear visibility that the lintel was removed in 1964. Nowadays, however, collectors especially appreciate the 1963 model known as the "Split-Window Coupe". Its significance lies in the fact that it was the first coupe in the history of Corvette (the first generation cars were available only with an open top). Subsequently, a similarly shaped tail was given to the 1971-1973 Buick Riviera, also developed under Mitchell's direction.

As on the first generation Corvette, the fiberglass body was mounted on a steel ladder frame. In 1963, the car received independent rear suspension for the first time. It had a simple but effective design: transverse leaf spring mounted on the differential housing, lower transverse arms, rear axle half axles with U-joint as upper arms and telescopic shock absorbers. The front suspension was also independent, on double wishbone A-arms and springs with a transverse stabilizer bar. Mounted on all wheels 11-inch drum brakes with hydraulic drive could be ordered with metal pads or in a version of ribbed aluminum. The new "Ball-Race" circulating ball steering with hydraulic damping helped to improve performance.

The base engine for the 1963 Chevrolet Corvette Sting Ray was a 5.4-liter V8 327 engine with a single 4-cam carburetor and dual exhaust, producing 250 hp. This motor could be ordered in the L75 (300 hp), L76 (340 hp), and L84 (360 hp) packages for an additional cost. The L75 used larger valves and a larger displacement 4-chamber carburetor, the L76 used aluminum intake manifolds, a camshaft with modified timing and higher compression ratio, and the L84 used Rochester mechanical fuel injection, available for $430. There was a choice of a 3-speed or 4-speed manual transmission and a 2-speed Powerglide automatic, all with a floor-mounted lever. Most customers chose the Borg-Warner 4-speed manual, later replaced by the Muncie M20. The customer could also choose from six main gear ratios, ranging from 3.08:1 to 4.56:1. The options list included a Positraction self-locking differential, power brakes, power steering, white-stripe tires, Kelsey-Hayes cast aluminum wheels ($323), a removable rigid convertible roof, power windows, AM/FM radio, wood steering wheel, air conditioning, and leather interior.

Experts and journalists almost unanimously praised the Sting Ray for its performance and handling, but the split rear window was not to everyone's liking. At $4037 for the convertible and $4257 for the coupe, the Chevrolet Corvette Sting Ray was in high demand. At first, the plant in St. Louis could not even cope with orders, and its employees had to work in two shifts. In the first year, the company sold 21513 cars (10919 convertibles and 10594 coupes), which was 50% more than in 1962.

 

Porsche 911

Porsche 911

The first generation 911 was launched more than half a century ago, in 1964. Initially, the numbers denoted only the in-factory through numbering of the model. But coming popularity made 911 a proper name for several generations and more than 50 modifications.

Actually the history of the model itself can be traced back to 1956, when Ferdinand Porsche, in co-operation with the knowledgeable Austrian designer Erwin Komenda, set a goal to create a powerful and comfortable four-seat car to replace the 356 model. The development took almost four years.

It is worth mentioning that the car owes its design to Butzi Porsche - the eldest son of Ferri. The sloping body with large headlights, absence of horizontal planes, the rear part falling down to the bumper became a business card of the model.

In 1963 at the motor show in Frankfurt the first sample, then still Porches 901, was presented. However, the Peugeot company claimed its rights to designate serial cars with three-digit numbers with a zero in the middle. Thus, the car went into series with the index 911. But racing modifications were produced under numbers 904, 906, 907.

The first models were equipped with aluminium 2.0 engines with 130 hp. Maximum speed 210 km/h with acceleration to 100 km/h in 8.5 sec. In the basic configuration rack and pinion steering, manual transmission, dual-system heating. Steel discs R 15. Possibility to install air conditioning and racing chair Recaro.

A year later the base model was upgraded. A more powerful version of Porsche 911S (Super) 160 hp and the first 911 Targa convertible were also released. In the following years, the car increased its power and sales rates. For 1968-1969 more than 10 000 copies were sold.

The manufacturer does not support the division into generations, emphasising that the car so remains a 911 model. However, in 1974, the G-serie - the most popular modification - is released.

Emphasis is placed on comfort, safety and environmental friendliness. Three-point safety system and integrated head restraints, as well as a special bumper structure capable of withstanding a front impact. The design gets an upper spoiler and an anti-wing. The interior also underwent changes, with a new dashboard, stereo and windows.

The G-series was probably the most economically favourable series. In the following years the number of engine variations was reduced and power outputs declined, which had a negative effect on buying power. In 1983, the Carrera returned to production. And in 1987, on its basis in a limited edition of 340 copies was released CS ClubSport.

With the beginning of the 90s, the classic 911 Turbo was replaced by the 964 model - sold under the name of Porsche 911 Carrera 4. Following modern trends of passive safety enhancement, the insides were replaced by 85%, but the exterior design remained virtually unchanged.

1995 - Porsche 996 was introduced with a number of innovations: liquid-cooled engine, headlights with turn signals. In summer 2004, the updated 911 Carrera and 911 Carrera S were presented - new name 997 - produced in a total of 24 variants. It is considered to be the most advanced modification.

 

Ferrari 250 GTO

Ferrari 250 GTO

In the mid-1950s, there was a dramatic change in world motorsport. The reason for this was one of the most significant disasters during the races. The burst tire of one of the cars during the 24 Hours of Le Mans led to the fact that the car crashed into the crowd and produced the effect of a bomb that exploded. Almost a hundred people were killed, and several times more were injured. The world public raised a serious scandal. In the International Federation of Motor Sport (FIA) decided to limit speeds, because race cars at that time on straight sections could accelerate to 300 km / h, and also set many new requirements and restrictions on the design of cars.

It was decided that only GT class cars would take part in the races, which combines high-performance cars designed for public roads. It was also established that only production cars could be certified, which had to be produced at least one hundred copies in a row within 12 months. The main requirements for the design were the presence of two seats in the cabin and a full-size windshield, and not trimmed from above, as on the racing versions. Modernization of units and assemblies was still allowed, but there was such a list of restrictions that the developers had to sweat a lot to get a really racing version out of the production model.

At that time Ferrari had its own racing car - 250 GT, which in various modifications had been produced since the early 1950s and repeatedly won car competitions, including one of the most prestigious and difficult races "Tour de France", consisting of circuit races, road sections and hill climbs. However, after the introduction of new regulations, this sports car could no longer compete. Under the new conditions, it was extremely difficult to create a powerful racing car - that's why the FIA introduced strict requirements. Therefore, accustomed to win, Enzo Ferrari decided to take a risk - to bypass the rules and convince the control commission of the FIA that no violations of the regulations when modifying it did not commit.

In 1959 at the Paris Motor Show, Ferrari presented a new version - 250 GT SWB. The last three letters mean that the wheelbase of this car was shortened, unlike the sports model, to 2400 mm.  Ferrari 250 GT SWB was produced more than one and a half hundred copies, that is, it corresponded to the FIA conditions of "serialization". This car went to Enzo Ferrari's workshop for a "sporty" transformation.

This is where the story of the appearance of this masterpiece not only of the Ferrari company, but also, without exaggeration, of the whole world automobile industry - Ferrari 250 GTO - begins covered with a veil of mystery. Let's understand the name of the model. The number "250" is the number of cubic centimeters falling on one cylinder, the abbreviation GT was written above, and the letter "O" illustrates the skill and cunning of Enzo Ferrari and denotes "homologation", that is accreditation of the car by FIA for participation in auto racing. What was so unusual about Ferrari's most famous model? Yes simply 250 GTO and 250 GT SWB united, perhaps, only the color of the body, but according to the documents it was one and the same car in sport and serial modifications. Therefore, the special certification commission of the FIA had a lot of questions to the "great combinator".

Firstly, the body for the new racing model was developed anew, taking into account all the latest developments in the field of aerodynamics. Even the bumpers were removed to reduce the coefficient of aerodynamic resistance. Secondly, for the sake of improving the weight distribution, the cabin was moved a little back, and the engine was moved closer to the center of the car. The power unit was not modernized. It was simply borrowed from the racing Ferrari 250 GT, which contradicted all the rules. It was a 3.0-liter V12, capable of developing almost 300 hp. Dynamics was also corresponding: acceleration to 100 km/h in 5.6 s, and the maximum speed - for 250 km/h. Other units and assemblies also corresponded to the latest developments in the field of motorsport - fully independent suspension, disc brakes on all wheels.

The most interesting question: "How did the commission certify the 250 GTO with so many violations of the regulations?" remains unsolved. Legend has it that Enzo Ferrari's cunning and persuasive skills, worthy of the best diplomat and politician, helped him to fool the FIA commissioners. For example, comments on the space frame of tubular elements, which categorically forbidden to use the rules, Ferrari rejected, explaining that it is just thin tubes to strengthen the body, which will not make a load-bearing structure. He was not at all embarrassed and easily expected reaction to the power unit provided for inspection. They say, it is the most usual engine, well, maybe with an improved intake system. However, some modifications are still allowed.

Whether it was Enzo Ferrari's equanimity, the incompetence of the expert committee members or, more likely, politics, the spectators clearly would not have liked the absence of the Ferrari team from the championship in the GT class, but the 250 GTO, to the obvious displeasure of its rivals, received a pass to take part in the race. And they could be understood. Already in the spring of 1962, the Ferrari 250 GTO won several competitions at once. In total, the Ferrari team won prizes in such prestigious races as "12 Hours of Sebring", "Targa Florio", "Nürburgring", "24 Hours of Le Mans", "Tour de France", as well as the first place in the annual world championship of automakers in 1962-1964. In fact, there was no one to compete the 250 GTO with - rivals really went to the tracks on modifications of production models, not on real sports cars.

Apart from the above mentioned sporty features of the 250 GTO, other details cannot be overlooked. The interior was made completely in a spartan style.  There were not even handles for closing the doors, instead special cords were used. The interior space allowed to accommodate, as required by the rules, two people, but the space for luggage was not more than a pack of napkins. The main element of the dashboard is a huge tachometer, because for a racer it is more important engine speed, not speed. The speedometer is moved to the right and down to the gearbox selector, which is a massive aluminum box screwed to the cardan tunnel with big bolts. The only luxury in the cabin was a wooden steering wheel.

Amazingly, the car was easier to drive at high speeds, but at low speeds there were problems with steering and engine performance. Firstly, at high speeds, the rushing air flow pressed the front part of the car to the road, so that the tires received the necessary tight contact with the road surface. At low speeds, on the contrary, the turning ability was clearly insufficient. Secondly, in order to minimize air resistance at high speeds, the size of the radiator air intake was minimized. Accordingly, not receiving sufficient airflow, at low speeds the engine quickly overheated and vibrated strongly. Therefore, three small holes were made in the front of the body, which were closed with special covers at high speed. Also, to provide better ventilation of the engine compartment and disc brakes, cutouts were made in the fenders behind the wheels.

A total of 36 examples of the Ferrari 250 GTO were produced during production between 1962 and 1964. Of these, 33 cars had a 3.0-liter V12, and three had a 4.0-liter 12-cylinder engine installed, which were often referred to as the "330 GTO" by analogy to the 3.0-liter "sibling". In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the performance of the 250 GTO and other rarity Ferrari models began to gain increased interest from the motoring public. After all, the world faced the first fuel crisis and rising oil prices, and in this regard, automakers were bound hand and foot by strict restrictions in the development of cars. Because of this, the spirit of freedom and speed embodied in the Ferrari 250 GTO made the car all the more desirable. Now these cars were not perceived as outdated but cute racing cars, but became works of art on wheels, just like the piece luxury cars of the 1930s. All of this fueled an unprecedented excitement around the Ferrari 250 GTO among collectors of automotive rarities.

250 GTO, perhaps, is one of those rare cases when the concept of "pirate copy" can be applied to a car, as well as to a CD. After all, if in the late 1980s auction price of Ferrari 250 GTO was about 2 million dollars, then in 1991 the model was sold for 5.5 million dollars - not a bad investment. There are a lot of people who want, and there are not enough cars for everyone. That's why there are a lot of skillful people who manage to make a "real" 250 GTO out of less valuable classic Ferrari models. This further fuels the cost, because expertise is not a cheap pleasure, but then you can brag that the collection is the original 250 GTO.

The last record price for Ferrari 250 GTO was fixed at the auction Sotheby`s and amounted to almost 11 million dollars. And it is quite justified. After all, it is not for nothing that the car is in the lists of "most-selfs" in various nominations.

 

Dino 206/246 GT

Dino 206/246 GT

Having achieved success with the mid-engine layout on the race track in 1968, Ferrari decided to apply it to the road car and the apogee of its development was the Ferrari Dino 246 GT.

The model named Dino 206 GT received a stylish all-aluminum body of "Berlinetta" type and lightweight aluminum V6 engine with a capacity of 1987 cc. instead of the traditional for the "Dancing Stallions" V12. Interestingly, it didn't have the word Ferrari in its name. It was sold exclusively under the name Dino, as if it were another brand. The model was named after Enzo's eldest son Alfred Ferrari. He went by the nickname "Dino" and died in his 24th year.

V6 DOHC-engine with 65-degree angle of cylinder camber, proposed by "Ferrari Dino" already being in hospital, was successfully used on racing cars since '57. It was installed on the 206 GT for homologation purposes in Formula 2. In 1969, the Dino GT underwent a revision and received the designation 246 GT. The expensive and complicated aluminum body was replaced by a steel body, and the engine was cast in cast iron. To compensate for the increase in weight, the engine displacement was increased to 2418 cc. As a result, power and torque increased from 185 hp / 175.4 Nm to 195 hp / 225.4 Nm.

This allowed to reach a maximum speed of 235 km/h. Other changes included lengthening the wheelbase to improve handling, which can be called decent even by modern standards. In 1971, a variant of the 246 GTS with a targa body was introduced. By 1974, 3761 copies of this car with both body types were produced.

 

Ford GT40

Ford GT40

Historically, the most prestigious races are held in Europe, so many American and Asian teams tried to show themselves not only at home, but also in the Old World. In the early 60's, Ford cars showed themselves quite well in competitions. Galaxie production coupes dominated the NASCAR bodywork championship, and the Ford Shelby Cobra was successful in the GT championship.

But to reach the highest international level, more advanced models were needed - specially designed sports prototypes. Henry Ford II, head of the Ford Motor Group, dreamed of high-profile victories in endurance events such as the famous 24-hour race at Le Mans in France.

At that time, the kings of Le Mans were red "stallions" Ferrari. The Italian company was experiencing financial difficulties and Enzo Ferrari put his brainchild up for sale. Ford decided to buy Ferrari and offered a fabulous, for those times, amount - 18 million dollars. At first, the proud Italian agreed, especially since they decided to keep him as the honorary president of Ferrari. But at the last moment Enzo found out that he could not make decisions without consulting Ford's management, he rudely kicked the Americans out of the office door.

Naturally, this behavior of Ferrari made Henry Ford II very angry, and he decided to prove that he could achieve success in racing on his own. And for this purpose it is necessary to defeat red cars in Le Mans. So Ford opened a new racing program to create a sports prototype.

In the 60's, mid-engine models gradually began to dominate, but Ford had no experience in creating them. Therefore, they turned for help to the British company Lola, which had already built bolides using Ford units. By 1963, joint efforts created a streamlined coupe and convertible, called GT40. The numerical index indicated a low height of 40 inches (1,030 mm). The GT40 was based on a steel monocoque, to which fiberglass body panels were attached. Thus it was possible to make the car light - 907 kg. Familiar from Ford Mustang 4.7-liter V8 was refined and raised its power to 385 hp, and paired with it worked 5-speed manual transmission. Of course, independent suspension and four-wheel disc brakes were installed.

Ford GT40 was tested for a year: the coupe developed 315 km/h and accelerated to 160 km/h in 9 seconds. In April 1964, several cars were brought to Le Mans for tests. It almost turned out to be a tragedy: on long straights "nose" of the car lacked downforce. One GT40 crashed, and the other was seriously damaged. As a matter of urgency, the bolides were sent to the UK for revision - they changed the design of the front end, which solved the problem. But completely from the "childhood diseases" could not get rid of. During the debut 24-hour race GT40 were very fast, but all came off because of technical problems.

It was a real disaster, but Henry Ford II wasn't used to giving up. It's just that the design was still very raw. Then the Ford management decided to turn to its longtime partner Carroll Shelby. The Texan undertook to finalize the model and in February 1965 GT40 got its first victory at the Grand Prix in Daytona. But Le Mans was not conquered again - GT40 set a lap record in the race, but did not reach the finish line.

The new season of 1966 the Ford team met in full force. The development of the convertible was abandoned and concentrated on the coupe. Problems with reliability were solved, which showed the first place in the race in Sebring. And for Le Mans they prepared an updated GT40 MkII. To its creation Shelby approached purely American: installed a huge 7.0-liter V8 under the hood. The coupe became heavier by 150 kg, but it was compensated by serious power - 485 hp. On straight lines Ford bolides easily developed 340 km/h. It was impossible to compete with such monsters: GT40 took the first, second and third places, and were so close that the winner was determined by photo finish. Chris Eamon and Bruce McLaren's crew triumphed. Ford then continued its winning ways at the Grand Prix of Daytona and Reims, allowing the team to win the World Championship. Henry Ford II was jubilant, he had proved to Enzo Ferrari that his cars were better.

It was decided to celebrate the victory with seven road-going Ford GT40 MkIIIs. They featured softer suspension, a two-seat saloon, a trunk heater and radio. The power of the 4.7-liter engine was reduced to 335 hp, but the dynamics was still excellent - 5.3 s to 100 km/h and maximum 265 km/h. The car cost 18,500 dollars, that is cheaper than road Ferrari and Lamborghini.

The Americans were jubilant, but decided not to stop there. The next year they prepared an improved GT40 MkIV. It was designed without the participation of Lola. In Detroit they created a completely new body - more streamlined and with better downforce. Aluminum alloys were used extensively in the construction, so the weight was reduced to 1000 kg. Power of the 7.0-liter engine rose to 500 hp, and top speed reached 354 km/h. The MkIV repeated its success at Le Mans - this time the winners were American motorsport stars Dan Gurney and Anthony Foyt. Ford also won the 12-hour race at Sebring.

The super-powered American cars were difficult to contend with on the track, and then the competitors took a different route. In the International Federation of Motorsport decided to limit the volume of engines of sports prototypes at the mark of 5.0 liters. After that Ford decided to stop development of the GT40 program as it was very costly.

But Ford cars did not leave the race, they continued to be used by private teams. Especially successful were the GT40s of Briton John Wyer. He bought a standard 1965 coupe, improved their aerodynamics and installed a new 5.0-liter V8 with an output of 425 hp. So it turned out GT40 MkI Gulf. In 1968, it repeated its success at Le Mans with Pedro Rodriguez and Lucien Bianchi at the wheel. In addition, the Ford team won the world championship again. Le Mans was also conquered in 1969. Interestingly, the fourth triumph in the 24-hour race was brought already by other pilots (Jacqui X and Jack Oliver), but they used the same car as their predecessors. The chassis and engine easily survived two 24-hour marathons.

In 1970, the Ford GT40 was sent to a well-deserved rest, because competitors became more powerful and faster. The coupe went down in history as one of the most successful race cars of its time, it became a symbol of determination and will to win. In total, 107 cars were produced, but it seemed not enough for collectors, and a real hunt for them began. Even now many specialized companies produce copies of GT40. And in 2005, there was a Ford GT coupe, which is almost a copy of the famous ancestor.

 

Dodge Charger R/T

Dodge Charger R/T

Dodge entered the battle of "oilcars" late. Only two years after Pontiac GTO, the company released Charger of the first generation. The car turned out to be not bad, but it did not gain any popularity. Nevertheless, Dodge did not despair, carefully analyzed the shortcomings of the first generation model and in 1968 released a new Charger, which went down in history as one of the most powerful and beautiful "oilcars" of America.

The 1966 Charger used the Chrysler B-body platform from the Dodge Coronet, as well as many of its bodywork elements. Designers tried to make the cars as dissimilar as possible, but in fact they differed minimally. Moreover, Charger cost $3100, which was 15% more expensive than Coronet. Partially it was compensated by the fact that the Charger received high-quality interior trim and several V8 engines. Nevertheless, by 1967, the sales of "maslkar" fell almost twice and Dodge decided to restart the model.

The question was approached thoroughly and already in 1968 the Charger of the second generation went into production. Although technically the car did not change, its appearance was completely rethought. Richard Seys, a little-known at that time stylist, who did not have his own large projects, worked on the design. Nevertheless, the design of the new Dodge Charger turned out to be damn attractive.

The car was characterized by an aggressive appearance with powerful angular fenders and a curved belt line in the form of a Coca-Cola bottle. Subsequently, this design element was adopted by many competitors, so it turned out to be successful. In addition, unlike the last generation model, the Charger had a body type hardtop coupe, but with a small feature. Seis recessed the glass between the rear pillars, visually increasing the already not small stern. A striking detail was a hinged gas tank lid on the left rear fender. Which, by the way, was very impractical and often froze up in owners from the northern states. They joked saying that they would carry an ice axe with them, but they would not trade Charger for anything.

In general, the "maslcar" looked brutal, if not to say hard, and stood out in the stream. The image was completed by a closed falshardiator grille with chrome edging and hidden headlights. It was another item of pride of the owners.

As said above Dodge Charger was based on the same platform as its predecessor. So the lineup of motors was similar in many respects. From low-powered V8 with a volume of 318 cubic inches (5.2 liters) to powerful 440 Magnum (7.2 liters) and 426 Hemi (7 liters), rated at 375 hp and 425 hp, respectively. The last two were the prerogative of special modification R/T (Road/Track). With this name, Dodge wanted to emphasize that the new Charger is good not only on public roads, but also on the race track. With the Hemi engine, the Charger accelerated from 0 to 100 km/h in 5.3 seconds, and overcame the quarter mile in 13.5 seconds, accelerating to 164 km/h on the way out! Of course, such outstanding results favorably affected sales. Chargers were bought up very actively and for the first year it was possible to sell 96 thousand cars of them 17 thousand in RT modification.

In the same 1968, Dodge Charger came to the start in NASCAR races. However, rather quickly a significant drawback was revealed, the angular "maslcar" had rather mediocre aerodynamics, due to what it lagged behind its main competitor Ford. They tried to solve the problems with little blood by creating an improved in terms of aerodynamics modification of Dodge Charger 500.

However, it did not help much and then Dodge developed in 1969 absolutely killer version of Dodge Charger called Daytona. The car was distinguished by a pointed fairing and an incredible antifender more than half a meter high. The car was very successful and won many race victories and broke several speed records. According to NASCAR homologation rules, 392 Charger 500 and 503 Daytona cars were released on the "civil" market.

The second-generation Dodge Charger is considered the most successful in the history of the model. Great appearance, excellent characteristics and high achievements in motorsports made the Charger one of the most successful "maslcars" in history. For three years it was possible to sell 236 thousand cars. The model of the third generation was much less successful, and then Charger and "maslcar" became not compatible at all. Until 2006, when Dodge revived the model again, to the joy of all fans of the brand.

 

Alfa Romeo Carabo

Alfa Romeo Carabo

 

Facel Vega Facel II

Facel Vega Facel II

To treat the Fasel-Vega II simply as a car is decisively impossible. There are many interesting, beautiful and in its own way wonderful cars in the world, but it was especially difficult to part with this one. And not only because you do not deal with such rarities too often. In this blue coupe there is some special, hard to explain, irrational attraction.

This is how the engineer and entrepreneur Jean Danino was called even half a century after his famous brand "Fassel" left the automobile scene. Danino lived 95 years and saw with his own eyes how his cars in the circles of the rich and famous became not just in demand, but literally cult. And they are now much more expensive than in the 1960s, when they were with needles. Although even then they were considered not cheap at all. The company built only about 3000 cars. But what a lot of cars! In the early 1950s, a successful 45-year-old entrepreneur Danino conceived the idea of creating cars that could compete with Ferrari in speed, and in luxury - with Rolls-Royce. No more and no less!

The abbreviation FACEL stood for "Forging and Mechanical Workshops of the Department of Er-et-Loire". Later the capital letters in the brand name became lower case. Quite a successful company since 1939 made various metal structures, including for aircraft construction. And Danino started his career at Citroën in the distant 1920s.

After the war, the plant produced serial bodies for "Panaras", French "Fords", "Simos" and customized ones for "Bentleys". The latter probably prompted Jean Danino, who had a penchant for luxury in general and expensive cars in particular, to create his own car. The influence of his brother Pierre, a fashionable journalist and writer, who was a member of the bohemian writer-artist circles of Paris and was well aware of the tastes there, must have had an impact.

The first prototypes were built in the early 1950s, and the production coupe FV was presented in 1955. Even President de Gaulle visited the company's stand at the Paris Motor Show. You bet! There was a new national manufacturer, capable, as it seemed at that time, to break into the highest automotive world. It was no coincidence that the name "Fasel" was added to the name "Vega".

Already in 1956, the HK 500 coupe appeared (the index ingeniously coded the specific power: 5 hp per 100 kg, and the letter H meant horsepower, and K - kilograms). The successor of this luxury coupe was the model "Fasel II", with which I was lucky to communicate. The car debuted at the Paris Motor Show in the fall of 1961, and the following spring it was shown in Geneva.

Do you want to be ironic? All you want! I agree, in design there is something from Mercedes, something American and even touches of Italian style are visible. But all this is intertwined so cleverly and fancifully that it is impossible not to recognize the originality of "Vega". And what is the interior, generously saturated with first-class leather and wood! To appreciate this splendor in full measure, it would be good to sit in the car first. And it is not easy: the roof is low, the threshold is wide. But if you have sat down, you do not want to get out. The seat is comfortable (which cannot be said about many cars of that time): legs are not bent, and the range of longitudinal adjustment of the seat is sufficient even by modern standards. For the time spent with the car I have worked out an unusual and not the most hygienic algorithm of leaving the cabin: getting out, I lean my hand on the threshold. But I repeat, I don't want to get out at all!

When evaluating an interior, it is absolutely necessary to get away from the practicalism inherent in this century and forget about ergonomics - at least in the modern sense. You do not demand from poems or paintings practical advice on agriculture or fortification, do you? Well, don't expect modern German rationality from the French Vega. This is a car from the romantic sixties, when people ate, drank and (oh horror!) even smoked because it was pleasant, when they sang live from the stage and when at least some cars were treated not only as a cart designed to deliver people from point A to point B.

Yeah, the instruments are a bit hard to see. The light switch, bizarrely arranged by the sophisticated design thought on the tunnel between the seats, I constantly touch with my foot, turning off the headlights. No matter how you twist the playful rearview mirror, defiantly installed on the panel, generously covered with leather, - still you can't see much in it. Against this background, the row of "airplane" climate control knobs and the paddle switch of the audio signal (the French still make similar ones) are almost prose.

Skeptics will be sarcastic. But connoisseurs of high automotive art in the early 1960s paid 53,000 francs for the Fassel II - the price of three Citroen DS and one "ugly duckling" model 2CV in addition. That's a lot of money! So whatever the buyer - a legend. From the list of owners of French beauties you can collect a whole volume like "Who is who in the world of art" (and business). Christian Dior and Pablo Picasso, Max Factor and Princess Grace of Monaco, Jean Marais and Beatles drummer Ringo Starr, Frank Sinatra and world-famous conductor Herbert von Karajan. The company's office on Avenue George V was like a social salon.

Buyers received not only a graceful elegant body. The Chrysler 6.3 liter engine with an output of 390 hp, paired with an American three-speed automatic, was bubbling under it. Thanks to mass production overseas units were relatively inexpensive - and the power gave out impressive. It is interesting, that a manual four-stage box of French production was offered for additional payment, but there were few hunters to it. It is not very spacious, but the seats are comfortable, and there are ashtrays in niches on the sides. But because of such air conditioner deflectors, installed on the rear shelf, one can catch a cold.

If you press the gas pedal harder, the hearty rumbling of the "eight" turns into a lion's roar, and the car takes off with the slippage of the rear wheels. Patiently waiting for the lazy American box to switch to the second, you again feel a serious acceleration. Jean Danino had succeeded. In 1960s journalists, including American (most cars went to the States), called "Fasel II" the fastest four-seat coupe in the world. Measurements showed an impressive maximum speed: 240-242 km/h!

Of course, in handling "Fasel II" is similar to its American peers. Soft suspension provides not only excellent comfort, but also rolls in turns, and you can turn the steering wheel with your little finger, only guessing in what position the wheels are now. And nevertheless rather squatty car with a base of only 2660 mm is a little bit shorter than American analogs.

Of course, I can't check the maximum speed, but brakes - quite. Frenchmen are very good: disk mechanisms on all wheels provide decent deceleration even by today's standards! All this French-American magnificence consumed, on the average, 21 liters of gasoline per 100 km (the tank is 100 liters). But this is already the prose of life, about which, when traveling in such a car, one does not want to think.

It was difficult for small producers of exclusive cars to survive without falling into the clutches of larger capitalists. But Danino's idea was ruined not by this, but by persistent attempts to make a more democratic model with the original French engine - which was very modern and powerful, but pathologically unreliable. The belated replacement of the unit with a British one no longer made sense. In addition, Danino had some sort of conflict with the government, at whose behest the firm's main lender withdrew its financing. In 1964 the automobile history of the company ended.

And what an idea it was! But why was it? Here is a well-preserved living car, rumbling with a powerful engine, satiated and slightly dissatisfied (at idle the engine warms up more than I would like). It seems to demand: "Come on, let's go!" As if half a century, which changed the world so much, had never passed. Over the past time "Fasel" has not lost its attractiveness at all - it has only become even more expensive (the base price of Mercedes S-class can be multiplied by three). So he, rich and famous, the extra years are only for the benefit.

"Fasel II" was produced from 1962 to 1964. The cars were equipped with V8 "Chrysler" engines with an output of 355 or 390 hp (according to SAE), manual or automatic transmission. The speed of the coupe reached 240 km/h. According to different estimates, 182-184 copies were built.

 

Aston Martin DB5

Aston Martin DB5

In the century-long history of Aston Martin company there were many glorious moments, but still it was the DB5 model that became the most famous, despite the fact that only 833 copies saw the light. Moreover, DB5 looks very similar to the previous generation - DB4, but the fifth DB became not just a car - it is a symbol and an object of worship. DB5 became a logical continuation of the previous generation DB4. Despite the external similarity, the designers changed more than two hundred details, thoroughly rebuilding the car.

The design was developed by Italian firm Carrozzeria Touring Superleggera. Strict laconic features, rounded forms, chrome edging of details, huge radiator grille. The car has always attracted attention and even an inexperienced person in automobiles understood perfectly well that Aston Martin is in front of it. Large front fenders are decorated with decorative inserts-jabras, the gas tank hatch is located unusually - on the rear left post. And, of course, 15-inch wheels on disks with spokes, which have already become obligatory.

Rear-wheel drive, four-seat saloon. There is not much space on the second row, but was it often used? Still, the DB5 is a driver's car. There is a large three-spoke steering wheel with a wooden rim, behind it there is an instrument panel. In addition to speedometer and tachometer, the driver sees several other gauges - fuel and coolant level, oil pressure, etc. In the middle of the dashboard there is a big clock, under which there are heater control levers and radio receiver.

There were no headrests of seats at that time, for the front passenger there was installed a handle, which he could hold on to during active driving. And exactly for such and Aston Martin DB5 was created! The standard equipment includes wool carpets, electric windows, leather interior and fire extinguisher. It was also possible to order the car with air conditioning.

The heart of Aston Martin DB5 is a four-liter 286-horsepower engine Tadek Marek. This engine was optionally installed on the DB4 Vantage modification. This six-cylinder 24-valve motor reached a peak torque of 390 Nm at 3850 rpm. The DB5 has a top speed of 230 km/h, and acceleration to one hundred takes 8 seconds.

Initially DB5 was equipped with a 4-speed manual gearbox, but soon there was a new five-speed ZF. It was also possible to order a car with a three-range "automatic". Parallel to the coupe, a cabriolet was produced. Of 123 convertibles, only 19 had a left-hand steering wheel, the rest were typical British.

A special series of Aston Martin DB5 Vantage 1964 was equipped with a forced motor. Engineers installed different camshafts, three two-chamber carburetors Webber 45DCOE. The power increased to fantastic for those times 325 hp, and acceleration to 100 km/h took only 6.5 seconds. In a series of Aston Martin DB5 Vantage 12 cars are convertibles.

The most unique DB5 is created directly for the owner of Aston Martin David Brown. It is a four-seat station wagon called DB5 Shooting Brake. One such car was made for David Brown and 11 more Shooting Brake cars were created in atelier Harold Radford & Co Limited from ordinary (if such term can be applied to such car) Aston Martin DB5.

Aston Martin is inseparable from James Bond, but DB5 - especially. For the first time James Bond, played by the incomparable Sean Connery, sat behind the wheel of an Aston Martin in the movie "Goldfinger". In the book by Ian Fleming, the superhero drove a sporty version of the Aston Martin DB 2/4 Mark III, but by the time of filming this car was no longer produced. In the film, Dr. Q equipped the Aston Martin DB5 with Brauning machine guns, grenade launchers, and blades in the wheel hubs that extend from the headlights. Pursuers were hampered by a smoke screen from the exhaust, as well as spewing oil. Bond was protected by a steel seatback and armored glass, and when the situation became desperate, he ejected. There was a tracking monitor with a 150-mile radius and a radiotelephone. To change the number was enough to press a button in the cabin.

Two DB5s were directly involved in the filming of "Goldfinger", and two more were used to promote the movie. The first of these cars in 1997 disappeared without a trace from the owner's hangar. The car has still not been found. The second one was bought by a certain Jerry Lee in 1969 for $12,000, with all the movie equipment removed from the car - it was a standard DB5. The owner restored the options, and in 2010 this car was sold at auction in London for $4.6 million.

As for the cars that participated in the advertising of the movie, one of them was bought at an auction in 2006 for $2.6 million, and the second one is in a Dutch museum. The DB5 series was discontinued in 1965, but the car didn't leave Bondiana. In Ball Lightning (1965), Sean Connery again drives a DB5. This time, Dr. Q has again perfected the car, and it can fly.

Twenty years later, in the 1995 movie GoldenEye, Connery is replaced by Pierce Brosnan. In the first shots, the new James Bond sits behind the wheel of an Aston Martin DB5. Then DB5 appears in the movie "Tomorrow Never Dies" in 1997.

And in 2006 in the movie "Casino Royale" Daniel Craig wins a DB5 in cards. The picture "007: Skyfall Coordinates" comes out in 2012 - the 50th anniversary. It is quite logical that Aston Martin DB5 has a significant role in this movie. Aton Martin cars are characterized by the highest quality of assembly, so most of the 833 Aston Martin DB5s produced are still on the road. Each of these cars is a collector's rarity and becomes a source of pride for museum exhibitions and private collections.

 

Porsche 904 GTS

Porsche 904 GTS

 

Maserati Ghibli

Maserati Ghibli

The Maserati brand has been known since 1914, but it truly rose to the elite of sports car manufacturers in the post-war era. At that time, the Italian company changed its priorities - it began to produce more road models, although earlier the emphasis was on racing cars. Glorified Maserati sports models, named in honor of different winds.

The beginning of a beautiful tradition was laid in the 60s. In Maserati then designed a new two-seat coupe on a shortened platform of the tourist model 3500 GT. The famous French designer Pietro Frois worked on its appearance. He created an elegant streamlined car and proposed to name it Mistral - in honor of the cold wind Mistral, which blows on the Cote d'Azur. Until that time, Maserati had been predominantly digitally labeled.

The Orsi family, who owned Maserati at the time, liked both the car and its name. In 1964, the serial production of Mistral began. It enjoyed considerable popularity due to good dynamics and controllability. There was a choice of in-line "sixes" with fuel injection and dual ignition of 3.5 liters (235 hp), 3.7 liters (245 hp) and 4.0 liters (255 hp). The most powerful version developed 255 km/h.

Maserati Mistral was appreciated for disc brakes on all wheels, luxurious leather interior and spacious trunk, and the list of optional equipment included air conditioning and automatic transmission. Until 1970, almost a thousand coupes and convertibles were produced.

Mistral's older brother Maserati Ghibli of 1966 was named in honor of the dry wind from the Libyan desert. Streamlined wedge-shaped coupe with a height of only 116 cm and with then fashionable retractable headlights was developed by the genius of automobile style Giorgetto Giugiaro. The car was equipped with a 4.7-liter 330-horsepower V8 with two camshafts in the cylinder head.

For its time, the heavy touring model demonstrated excellent dynamics: 6.8 s to 100 km/h and a maximum of 248 km/h. At the same time, it was comfortable enough for long journeys. Among the options were power steering and power windows. Three years later, a 4.9-liter 335-horsepower Ghibli SS and a convertible Ghibli Spider were presented. Production of the model was completed in 1972, having assembled 1,274 cars.

Since the early 60's, mid-engined cars began to dominate motorsport. The location of the engine in the base positively influenced the distribution of weight on the axles and, accordingly, improved its handling. Soon production mid-engine models like the Lamborghini Miura or Ferrari 206 Dino appeared.

Maserati decided not to lag behind their fellow countrymen and in 1968 also began to develop such a car. Nodes and units were borrowed from Ghibli, but the power of 4.7-liter engine was reduced to 310 hp because of less perfect cooling system. The striking design was again developed by Giugiaro, who by that time had established his own body shop ItalDesign.

The coupe was introduced three years later and was named Bora - as a strong bora wind blowing from sea to shore. It fully corresponded to its name and was very fast: accelerated in 6.5 seconds to 100 km/h and developed 265 km/h. And the later Bora SS variant with a 4.9-liter 330-horsepower engine reached 280 km/h, that is, it was one of the fastest road cars of its time.

However, with a price of 25,500 dollars (about 170 thousand at the current exchange rate) Bora was significantly more expensive than Ghibli, and therefore did not become too popular. And the fuel crisis of 1974 sharply reduced the demand for "voracious" sports models. Only a little more than 500 coupes were produced.

However, Maserati found a way to get profit - they released an affordable model Merak, which became, in fact, a reduced copy of the Bora. The car used the same platform, but for the sake of cost reduction, some parts were borrowed from Citroen (the French company became a part of the same concern with Maserati). Instead of V8 they installed V6 of 2.0 liters (160 hp) or 3.0 liters (190-220 hp). The result was not bad: about 1900 Merak were assembled for ten years.

The Ghibli's successor, the Khamsin, went into production in 1974. It was named after the spring storm wind of Khamsin, which blows in North Africa. Bertone designer Marcello Gandini created an aggressive coupe with a wedge-shaped profile. The Khamsin was a four-seater with a roomy 400-liter trunk. All coupes received adjustable steering column, air conditioning and electric front seats. Many units and parts were taken from Ghibli and equipped with a familiar 4.9-liter "eight". Its power, however, was reduced to 320 hp to meet new ecological standards. However, good aerodynamics allowed to develop 275 km/h.

In addition, Khamsin became one of the first cars in the world with adaptive power steering, making the steering wheel easier at low speeds. But because of the economic crisis, the model could not repeat the success of the Ghibli: only 430 cars were assembled until 1982.

Then about "wind" names Maserati forgot and released the family Biturbo. However, this theme was returned to in 1988 with the model Karif (this is the name of the wind in Somalia). Compact 4.0-meter coupe with faceted design was equipped with a 2.8-liter turbocharged V6 with an output of 285 hp.

Two years later, the Shamal was introduced, named after the dry Middle Eastern flurry of shamal. The chopped design was again developed by Marcello Gandini. The car could accelerate to 100 km/h in 5.3 s and reach 270 km/h thanks to a 3.2-liter 326-horsepower twin-turbo V8 from the sedan Quattroporte.

And in 1992, the Ghibli was revived. The second generation of the model appeared as a four-seat coupe of business class. At first it was equipped with an engine from Karif, and then offered a 2.0-liter twin-turbocharged V6, developing 310 hp. Shamal and Ghibli were equipped with anti-lock brakes ABS, climate control, and active suspension. Production of both coupes lasted until 1997 and during this time more than 2000 Ghibli and 370 Shamal were produced.

The glorious tradition of Maserati has reached the present day. So, in 2013, the third generation of Ghibli was presented, which became an E-class sedan. By the way, in addition to the 3.0-liter V6 with 330 and 410 hp, for the first time in the history of the brand offered a 275-horsepower turbodiesel, and later there was a 580-horsepower gasoline V8 and even a hybrid unit.

The first Maserati Levante SUV was also named after the wind that often blows in the Strait of Gibraltar. The car received the same engines as Ghibli, and recently there was also a charged version Trofeo with 590-horsepower V8 from Ferrari. The tradition will be continued in the future - it is already known that the younger brother of Levante, Maserati Grecale, will also be named after the Grecale wind.

 

Alfa Romeo 1750 GTV

Alfa Romeo 1750 GTV

 

Alfa Romeo Giulia TZ2

Alfa Romeo Giulia TZ2

Carrozzeria Zagato was founded in 1919 in Monza, north of Milan. It became famous for lightweight automobile bodies built with the use of aviation technology. Shortly before the beginning of World War II, the products of the small Italian company were noticed by Alfa Romeo, which began to equip its sports cars with their bodies. The companies continued to cooperate after the war and created many excellent cars that left a trace in the history of the auto industry. Among them is the model TZ, released in 1962, which was later reborn into the legendary Alfa Romeo GIULIA TZ2.

Its designation stands for Tubolare Zagato (Tubular Zagato) and indicates the tubular frame of the streamlined aluminum fuselage. On the chassis weighing 660 kilograms was installed 1.6-liter DOHC engine, inherited from the Giulia series, developing 112 hp.

In 1965, an improved version, called Alfa Romeo GIULIA TZ2 (12 copies came off the assembly line), was presented. There are known cases when the owners of these cars returned the cars to the factory to re-equip them according to the new parameters.

While the first development was considered a road-going variant, the improved interpretation was a pure racing unit. The main difference was a fiberglass body with a lower profile, lightened by 40 kg. The power plant was equipped with a dual ignition system like in GTA cars. This increased the top speed to 245 km/h.

 

Ferrari 250 LM

Ferrari 250 LM

The three-time Le Mans winner Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa (1958, 1960 and 1961) was no less successful. And when mid-engine racing models appeared, Ferrari engineers simply moved the engine of the 250 to the base, raised the volume to 3.2 liters, and the power - up to 320 hp. It turned out to be 250 LM - almost serial model, which in 1964 in Le Mans defeated much more powerful sports prototypes.

The chassis and engine of the Ferrari 250 was universal - it was equally suitable for racing cars and road models. The bodies for it were made by ateliers Zagato, Bertone and, of course, Pininfarina. It was then that the partnership between Ferrari and Pininfarina began, which lasts until now. Thus, the GTO technique with a de-fortified to 250 hp engine was "dressed" in an elegant body from Pininfarina and one of the most beautiful Ferrari - 250 GT Lusso - was created. The 250 model was bought by blue bloods like Belgian princess or Iranian Shah, actor Steve McQueen and singer Bob Dylan. It was soon replaced by the improved 3.3-liter Ferrari 275.

 

Chevrolet Corvette C3

Chevrolet Corvette C3

Streamlined forms allowed to improve dynamics, although the engines were inherited from the predecessor. With a 360-horsepower engine, the coupe reached a speed of 233 km/h and accelerated to 100 km/h in 5.9 seconds. A year later, a more powerful 375-horsepower modification appeared. Thanks to the independent suspension of all wheels, extended track and sharper steering Corvette became more confident on winding roads.

The success of the second generation surpassed all expectations: more than 21 thousand coupes and convertibles were assembled in 1963. The car also distinguished itself in races. For this purpose Zora Arkus-Dantov created five unique Corvette Grand Sport. They weighed 815 kg and with a 480-horsepower engine could reach 280 km/h.

Since 1965, the Corvette received disc brakes on all wheels, and the flagship version was equipped with a 6.5-liter 425-horsepower V8. But just a year later, it was replaced by a new 7.0-liter "eight" L71 of the same power, but with a huge torque of 635 N-m. The result is 5.4 seconds to 100 km/h and a top speed of 245 km/h.

In 1967, thanks to a complex system of three dual-chamber carburetors, the power increased to 435 hp, and the time of acceleration to 100 km/h was reduced to 5.0 seconds. The traditional American 400-meter run from a place took 12.9 seconds. With such characteristics you could challenge any European sports model. And thus such Stingray cost 4800 dollars (30 thousand dollars at modern exchange rate), that is about four times cheaper than the most accessible Ferrari or Lamborghini.

Zora Arkus-Dantov created another 7.0-liter L88 engine. Ordinary buyers did not pay attention to it, because the declared power of 430 hp was less than that of the L71, and it cost significantly more. Only a few dedicated people knew, in fact the engine developed about 550 hp and could reach 275 km/h. The official power was lowered, deliberately, to deceive tax companies, which simply would not release such a Corvette on public roads. The L88 was also equipped with a revised transmission, suspension and brakes. The Corvette L88 won the Grand Prix at Sebring without much and took first place in its class at Le Mans. Only 200 L88s were sold in three years and most of them went to racers. Although there were some daredevils who bought them for everyday driving.

 

Ford Capri 3000 GT

Ford Capri 3000 GT

The Capri name first appeared on the Ford Consul Capri, a 2-door version of the Ford Consul Classic, which was produced by Ford of England. This car was introduced in January 1961, but it was not put into production until 1962. The car was equipped much richer than the sedan: windshield wipers with different speeds, disc brakes, 4 headlights instead of two and much more. This car was produced for only 2 years - until July 1964. Only 500 copies of this model were produced, which makes this car one of the rarest produced by Ford.

The Ford Capri MkI is the most mass produced of all Capri's. During production, and this car was produced from January 1969 to January 1974, 1172900 examples were produced. This car, as well as the next 2 generations, was produced in Britain and Germany and there was an unofficial competition between these two manufacturing countries, whose Capri was faster?

When creating the Mk I, the designers had a specific task - to create a European version of the Ford Mustang. The car had a similar body type Fastback. The length of the car was 4260cm, width - 1640cm, height - 1260cm, base - 2560cm.

It was presented to the general public in a solemn atmosphere on January 21, 1969 at the Brussels Motor Show, and it was presented in a left-hand drive car, right-hand drive Capri appeared a little later. The car was immediately flooded with orders, as it was still cheap, but had a sporty appearance. Only for one year, before the restyling in 1970, almost 400000 copies were produced!

At first, the German version was equipped with V4 engines from Ford Taunus with displacement of 1.3, 1.5 and 1.7 liters with power of 52, 64 and 88 hp respectively. The British installed in-line "fours" with displacement of 1.3 and 1.6 liters with an output of 53 and 64 hp respectively. The car had a manual, 4-speed gearbox.

At the end of 1969, the great rivalry began. Germans installed under the hood of Capri carbureted V6 engine with a volume of 2.3 liters with an output of 125 hp. So was born Ford Capri 2300 GT. But the British just a month later released the Ford Capri 3000 GT, installing a carbureted V6 with a volume of 3 liters with an output of 138 hp.

In 1970, the German Capri went for export to the USA, and the British - to South Africa and Australia. Cars for the USA were equipped only with the most powerful engine. Cars for South Africa and Australia were equipped with V6 engine with a volume of 2 liters with an output of 93 hp and were called Ford Capri 2000 GT.

The restyling of the Mk1 model took place in 1970. The engines remained the same, but the headlights and the rear of the car were changed. The interior remained almost unchanged: only the steering wheel and dashboard were changed. The most powerful versions - RS 2600 and RS 3100 - were not restyled.

The Ford Capri MkI had 4 special versions, the Ford Capri RS 2600, Ford Capri RS 3100 Spa Special, Ford Capri Caryford and Ford Capri V8 Perena. In September 1972, the Germans revealed the Ford Capri RS 2600. The car was equipped with a V6 engine with a displacement of 2637cm3, but instead of a carburetor the engine was equipped with a Kugelfischer injector. Engine power was 170 hp at 5500 rpm. The car had aluminum body panels, transmission ratios were closer.

Basically, Capri RS 2600 was created to homologate the engine for participation in European Touring Car Championship races in group 2. The car was produced until 1974. A total of 3532 copies of this car were produced.

1973 was not very successful for Ford Capri RS 2600 in European Touring Car Championship races, as there was a very serious competitor - BMW 3.0 CSL. So, in 1974 there was a new stage in the confrontation between English and German Capri - Ford Capri RS 3100 Spa Special, produced by the British. This car had a V6 engine with Bosch injector with a volume of 3.1 liters with an output of 185 hp. It was produced in an extremely small batch of 100 cars for homologation of only two parts - front and rear spoilers. Thus the drag coefficient was 0.37 versus 0.40 for the RS 2600.

The Ford Capri Caryford is the only Capri with a convertible body. It was created by the British in 1971. The car was equipped with two engines - 1.6 and 2 liters (1600GT and 2000GT). A total of 30 copies were created.

Ford Capri V8 Perena is the only Capri with a V8 engine. And it was the answer, prepared to the Germans and the British by specialists from Ford South Africa. It was supplied to England.

This car was equipped with a 4949cm3 Mustang Boss 302 engine with an output of 290hp at 5800rpm, and the thrust was 420Nm at 3500rpm. Fuel delivery system - 1 4-chamber Holley 460 CFM carburetor. Transmission was manual, 4-speed with ratios of (4) 1.00, (3) 1.29, (2) 1.69, (1) 2.32, the main gear ratio was 3.08:1. With such an engine it had no equal - top speed was 231km/h, and 0-100km/h acceleration was 6.6 seconds.

Ford Capri MkII was presented in February 1974. Since at that time there was an oil crisis, the Ford company decided to make Capri more adapted for everyday driving: the interior space was increased (now 4 people could easily fit there), the trunk lid began to rise together with the rear glass, which allowed to increase the luggage compartment, there was a 3-speed "automatic".

The interior of the MkII was practically no different from the interior of the MkI. All the differences were only in the new steering wheel and interior trim. Engines were also de-fortified to save fuel. English and German manufacturers of Capri were no longer chasing the increase of power. All versions of Capri were offered with 1.3, 1.6, 2 and 3 liter V6 engines with power of 57, 72, 98 and 138 hp respectively. There was also a sporty version of Capri with 1.6 liter engine - Capri 1600 GT, which developed 88 hp. There were special versions, such as Ford Capri Series - X and Ford Capri JPS.

The first special version was based on the Capri 2000 GT model and differed by the presence of 2 Weber carburetors, so the power increased to 115 hp. It was distinguished by reinforced brakes by Lockheed, new aerodynamic dodger, lowered suspension and different wheel rims. In total about 50 copies were produced.

The second special version was based on the Capri 1600GT, 2000 GT or 3000GT. Technically it did not differ from the regular models, all the differences were in color - the car was painted in Lotus Formula I colors (black with gold trim). In total, about 200 copies with different engines were produced.

In March 1977, the Ford Capri MkIII became available, although it was first introduced at the 1976 Geneva Motor Show. The car had similar body features to the MkII, but there were no common parts between the two cars.

On the most powerful versions of Capri MkIII there was a manual 5-speed transmission with ratios (1) 3.36, (2) 1.81, (3) 1.26, (4) 1.00, (5) 0.85. The 4-speed transmission remained on budget versions of the Capri, but it was replaced by a 5-speed transmission in 1982 (the same year the Capri 1300 was discontinued). Ventilated disc brakes on all wheels appeared.

The Germans and the British once again engaged in a power struggle. This time, the Germans won. The story goes like this. The Germans made the Ford Capri 3000 S by installing a carbureted V6 engine with a displacement of 2994cm3, which developed 138hp at 5100rpm and 243Nm of thrust at 3000rpm. Acceleration from 0-100km/h was 8.5 seconds (10 seconds with automatic transmission) and top speed was 201km/h (196km/h with automatic transmission). The wheels are 185/70R13 6J. The car cost 21000DM.

In response, the British produced an injector (injection system - Bosch K-Jetronic) version of Ford Capri 2.8i (by the way, it was equipped exclusively with a "manual"). The car had a 2972cm3 V6 engine with an output of 160hp at 5700rpm and a thrust of 226Nm at 4300rpm. Acceleration from 0-100km/h was 7.8 seconds and top speed was 210km/h. The wheels were 215/60R14 7J. The cost of the car was 25900DM.

But the Germans dotted the i's in this confrontation by releasing the Ford Capri 3000 S X-Pack. The car differed from the Capri 3000 S by the original aerodynamic dodger, similar to the dodger of the Capri 2.8i. The car was equipped with a 2994cc V6 engine taken from the Capri 3000 S, but compression was increased from 9.0:1 to 9.1:1, Weber 38/38 EGAS carburetor was replaced by 2 Weber 42 DNCF carburetors. Power increased to 175 at 5000rpm and thrust to 275Nm at 4000rpm. Acceleration from 0-100km/h was 7.4 seconds, and top speed increased to 220km/h. The car was equipped only with a manual transmission. The car was also equipped with a differential with a maximum friction coefficient of 30%. The car cost 28000DM.

In addition to the charged versions, budget models were produced: Capri 1300, 1600 and 2000. Engine displacement was 1298cm3, 1593cm3 and 1993cm3 respectively, and power - 57, 72 and 98 hp respectively.

There were several configurations:

1. There was only one configuration for the Capri 1300, the L. This was the cheapest Capri. The cost of this car was only 13000DM.

2. For the Capri 1600 there were L, LS, GL, S and Laser. The LS included only power steering. The GL came with velour upholstery, rear window washer and wiper, and alloy wheels. In the set S there was a new carburetor Weber 32/36 DGV, at the expense of which the power was raised to 88 hp. The Laser set also included leather upholstery seats, stereo, headlight washers, sunroof, automatic transmission.

3. For Capri 2000 were offered GL, S, Ghia and Laser. In the GL configuration everything remained the same as in the Capri 1600, but in the S configuration instead of the new carburetor there was an automatic 3-speed transmission as an option. The Ghia package included new sport seats and sunroof, and the Laser package included leather upholstery, stereo and headlight washers.

 Ford Capri Mk3 also had special versions: Capri GT4, Capri Calypso, Capri Cameo and Tempo, Capri Cabaret, Capri 2.8 Turbo, Capri Aston Martin Tickford 2.8i Turbo and Capri 280 Brooklands.

Ford Capri GT4 was built in 1980 by the Germans on the basis of Capri 1600 L. The car had an increased power of 86 hp and was painted exclusively in silver metallic. Distinctive feature were red stripes glued on the perimeter of the body. The buyer could choose between 2 transmissions - MKPP-4 or AKPP-3. The car was created for homologation of some parts for Ford Capri Zakspeed Group 5.

Ford Capri Calypso was based on the Capri 1600 LS. The car differed only by two-tone body coloring. Ford Capri Cameo and Tempo was the cheapest version of the Capri. The car was deprived of side moldings, in the interior decoration the cheapest materials were used. The car had only one configuration - the minimum (L), equipped with 1.3 or 1.6 liter engines. Therefore, the cost was reduced to 9 and 11000DM respectively. Ford Capri Cabaret was based on the Capri 2000, painted in two colors, like the Calypso, equipped with a sunroof, sport wheels and sport seats. The car was produced from 1982 to 1986.

The Ford Capri 2.8i Turbo is a supercharged Capri from the Germans. It was released in April 1982. The engine was taken from the Capri 2.8i model and was turbocharged. Power was 190hp at 5400rpm and thrust was 300Nm at 4000rpm. Transmission was a 5-speed manual. The wheels were new. They had the size of 9J, shod in 235/60VR13 tires. The car had an aggressive dodger, consisting of a front bumper with an aerodynamic diffuser, widened wheel arches, aerodynamic side "skirts" and a rear spoiler. This car accelerated 0-100km/h in 7.5 seconds, and the maximum speed was now 220km/h. This car was not cheap - 33300DM, and about 500 units were produced.

Ford Capri Aston Martin Tickford 2.8i Turbo is the rarest of all Capri. Only 23 examples of them were produced. As the name suggests, the car was created by the British together with the firm Aston Martin. It was presented in 1985 at the Geneva Motor Show. Externally, this car differed from Capri 2.8i Turbo only by new 8J wheels (tires - 235/45VR16), a new spoiler and a new radiator grille. The car was painted only in white color. Wheel arches remained the same as on the regular Capri.

Inside this car differed radically from ordinary Capri. Recaro sports seats (they had never been installed on any Capri before) were lined with the most expensive types of leather, on the floor there were Wilton wool carpets, in which the feet literally drowned. Doors and torpedo were finished with the most expensive types of wood.

The engine was boosted to 230 hp at 6000 rpm, and thrust rose to 400Nm at 4000 rpm due to a new KKK turbine. Also, the gear ratios in the 5-speed manual transmission were changed (the car was only equipped with it), due to which the acceleration from 0-100km/h was reduced to 6 seconds, but the top speed increased slightly - 224km/h.

Ford Capri 280 Brooklands - the final series of Ford Capri MkIII. The car was presented by the British in 1986. At first it was planned to create only 500 copies, and the car was going to be called Capri 500. But at the beginning of production, the car was renamed Capri 280, and during the production the number of 500 copies grew to 1038. 

Externally, the car differed from the Capri 2.8i only in color - British Green, and on the sides of the body was glued a red stripe. December 19, 1986, the last Capri came off the assembly line in Hailwood (England). During 8 years of production 200247 copies were produced.

During the 17 years of production, the Ford Capri became beloved for its reliability and affordability. This car was sometimes called the "people's car" because it was affordable even for housewives. All 17 years of production did not change the slogan: "Ford Capri: the car you always promised yourself". In America, this car was nicknamed "The sexy European Mustang".

 

Pontiac GTO Judge

Pontiac GTO Judge

In the 60s in the United States, large cars with powerful V8 engines under the hood dominated. They were called muscle cars and this segment was very bright. One of the most interesting and most popular of its representatives was Pontiac GTO. Now this model is 55 years old.

Pontiac GTO is the brainchild of a brilliant automobile engineer and manager John DeLorean. It was he who in the mid-50s was able to transform the Pontiac brand after a prolonged crisis, change its image and make it attractive to the new generation of Americans.

Young people in those days demanded more and more horsepower under the hood and DeLorean undertook the development of several sports models. However, this decision led to a conflict with the higher management of General Motors, which prohibited the installation of motors with a working volume of more than 5.4 liters on Pontiac. The point is that the right to create high-speed cars was given to Chevrolet and the appearance of powerful Pontiacs could lead to unwanted competition between the two divisions of the concern.

But DeLorean didn't want to give up. He decided not to design a completely new model, but to create a charged version of 5.2-meter mid-size Pontiac Tempest. Thus, it was possible to bypass the ban of General Motors. The package of options was called GTO - the same as the famous Ferrari model. However, the Italians had no complaints about it.

Pontiac GTO was available with coupe and convertible bodies and did not differ from the standard Tempest. But under its hood was installed a new 6.4-liter V8. In the base version with a four-chamber carburetor it developed 325 hp, but for a surcharge was available Tri-Power option. An improved power system with three twin-chamber carburetors upped the output to 348 hp. With a 4-speed manual transmission, the car accelerated to 100 km/h in 6.6 seconds and reached 195 km/h. The only increase in power was not enough: the steering, suspension and brakes were improved, new tires were installed. In the cabin there were sports seats, and for a surcharge offered air conditioning, radio and automatic transmission.

At first it was planned to produce a limited edition of 5000 GTO in a year, but the demand for the car exceeded all expectations. The thing is that the sports version was only 300 dollars more expensive than the standard Tempest. In a year, 32,450 cars were sold, and this success forced the management of General Motors to change the point of view. Since 1965, the GTO became a separate model. It was refreshed a little: "two-story" headlights and a new grille were installed. And the engine power was raised to 335 hp in the standard version and 360 hp - in Tri-Power. The changes helped to increase production volume more than twice - up to 75 thousand cars.

And next year, the number of produced GTO reached 97 thousand units. The model was updated again, and since 1967, began to install front disc brakes and a new 6.6-liter engine. The Tri-Power system was abandoned, but the power remained at the level of 360 hp. The fact that the GTO was equipped with aviation technology of dynamic supercharging Ram Air. Thanks to improved sealing of the air filter, more oxygen was supplied to the engine and, accordingly, the process of fuel mixture combustion was improved. The car was able to accelerate to 100 km/h in 6 seconds and reach 200 km/h, which at that time was considered an excellent result.

Although sales of the Pontiac GTO were impressive, DeLorean and his team decided not to rest on their laurels and introduced the second generation of the model in 1968. The car was transformed: it became more bright and streamlined in appearance, got original headlights hidden behind the radiator grille. Its length and height have been reduced, and the weight has decreased. The engine remained the same: it developed 350 hp in the regular version and 366 hp - with Ram Air system. The novelty was positively received and during the year 88 thousand coupes and convertibles were produced at a cost of 4200 dollars (31 thousand dollars at the current exchange rate).

Since 1969, a special modification The Judge appeared in the model lineup. It could be distinguished by 15-inch alloy wheels, stripes on the sides and a rear spoiler. This version was equipped exclusively with Ram Air engines, as well as adaptive power steering (one of the first in the world) and high friction differential. And a year later, a huge 7.4-liter "eight" was squeezed under the hood of GTO. It was not more powerful (360 hp), but had a huge torque (680 N∙m), and therefore was more elastic and adapted for everyday use. But fuel consumption in the urban cycle sometimes reached 35 l/100 km.

From the early 1970s, the development of muscle cars began to gradually slow down due to the introduction of new environmental regulations and increased insurance charges on sports models. Power outputs began to gradually decline. Already in 1971, the 6.6-liter GTO engine developed 300 hp, and the 7.4-liter engine - 335 hp. Sales dropped sharply to 10,500 cars, even despite another modernization. Two years later, the GTO again ceased to be an independent model and turned into a more powerful version of the Pontiac Le Mans, and its power dropped to 250 hp.

The model's popularity dropped even further, and a year later a new GTO was introduced, based on the Ventura model. Modest 5.7-liter engine produced only 200 hp, which, of course, was not to the liking of active drivers. And the fuel crisis made many people refuse to buy voracious sports cars. In addition, John DeLorean had left General Motors by then. As a result, after only 7 thousand sold coupes, it was decided to abandon further development of the model.

However, the overwhelming success of the original GTO did not give rest to the management of Pontiac. In the following years, several attempts were made to revive the famous model. But its resurrection happened only in 2004 - just in time for the 40th anniversary. The new GTO was built on the platform of Australian Holden Monaro and equipped with V8 engines from Chevrolet Corvette - 5.7-liter 350-horsepower and 6.0-liter 400-horsepower. The more powerful version accelerated to 100 km/h in 4.6 seconds and reached 280 km/h. For two years it was possible to produce a little more than 40 thousand coupes and due to low demand it was removed from production.

The Pontiac brand has disappeared into oblivion - it was liquidated at the end of 2009. However, old GTOs continue to enjoy popularity and sometimes at auctions of cars in excellent condition cost up to 100 thousand dollars. After all, this is one of the iconic models of the era.

 

Oldsmobile Toronado

Oldsmobile Toronado

The Oldsmobile Toronado (Oldsmobile "Tornado") was the most significant automobile produced in 1966 by General Motors Corporation (General Motors). It was the first front-wheel drive American production car since the pre-war Cord (Cord 810).

The father of this car project was the talented engineer John Belts. Back in 1954, General Motors engineering departments began work on the creation of the so-called "combined power module", but, initially, this development was intended for the Cadillac division, and it cost a lot of labor to get it for Oldsmobile. A working example of the "power module" was not completed until early 1958. It was based on a modular design including engine, gearbox and front wheel drive.

The main argument in favor of the front-wheel drive layout of a large and expensive car was the desire to offer customers something unusual, different from what was offered by competitors. And front-wheel drive seemed particularly attractive and promising for this purpose.

In the early 60's, the U.S. auto industry had a wave of compact cars and General Motors, following the rear-engined Chevrolet Corvair, planned to produce a compact Oldsmobile model "F-85". Therefore, early prototypes of front-wheel-drive Oldsmobiles ran on V-six engines coupled to a four-speed automatic transmission "Hydramatic" (Hydramatic).

With the arrival of a new head - Stan Willen - in the promising studio of car design, the Oldsmobile department developed a new, large (length - 5.8 m.), sports coupe, which very successfully fit the "combined power module" with the largest engine of the corporation, 7.0 liters and 385 horsepower (torque 660 N/m). It is interesting to note that in those days European front-wheel-drive cars had 1.5-liter engines, and the power did not exceed 60 horsepower.

From the design features of the "power module" it should also be noted that the torque from the engine was transmitted back to the torque converter, and then, through a toothed chain 50 mm wide, forward to the three-speed automatic transmission "Turbo-Hydra-Matic", located to the left of the engine and then, through the main gear and differential, to the front wheel axles. The car was presented to the public on July 29, 1965 and arrived in dealer showrooms on September 24. In 1966, American magazine Motor Trend named the Oldsmobile Toronado "Car of the Year".

 

Lotus Elan

Lotus Elan

To replace the troubled Elite model, Lotus decided to develop a completely different sports car. The new Elan had a separate frame and engine of its own design. The main feature of the car was a separate, simple steel frame: it was simple to design, simple to manufacture, simple to maintain and simple to repair. The company opted for a spine frame, with the engine and gearbox mounted at the front end, and the main gear and rear suspension mounted at the rear end. This scheme allowed to place the seats lower than usual, because the main bearing element of the frame ran along the axis of symmetry of the car.

The rear suspension struts (a variant of the front McPherson struts) had to be attached to high frame brackets, which seemed weak but were not really a bother. Another peculiarity was rubber joints in the drive train, because of which the car seemed to bounce at a sharp increase in engine speed.

A real design breakthrough was the new Lotus engine developed by former Coventry Climax employee Harry Mundy. The engine was based on a five-post Ford Cortina engine crankcase. The aluminum block head with two camshafts had hemispherical combustion chambers and two valves per cylinder. This engine became the company's primary engine for the next 10 years, and was also used in three Ford models - the Lotus Cortina Mk 1, Lotus Cortina Mk 2 and Escort Twin-Cam.

From the outset, the Elan, sold both as an assembly kit and as a finished car, was a great success. This small, light, fast and economical model combined excellent handling, excellent directional stability and a smooth ride.

Despite gradual modernization and quality improvements, the car was initially notorious for its poor reliability, mainly in electrical systems and instrumentation, as well as regular failures of the headlight lift mechanism.

 

Mercedes-Benz 230SL

Mercedes-Benz 230SL

Mercedes-Benz has recently introduced a new generation of SL convertible and this is an occasion to remember its history. It should be noted that this is one of the oldest models in the lineup of the German brand - it is already more than 60 years old. Cabriolet has always combined good dynamic characteristics with luxury and comfort.

For the first time the abbreviation SL (Sport und Leicht - "Sport and Light" in German) was used in 1954 on the legendary Mercedes-Benz 300SL coupe - the world's first serial car with direct fuel injection. Three years later, it had a convertible counterpart with the same 215-horsepower engine, and a more affordable 190SL model was also introduced. These were the predecessors of the Mercedes-Benz SL-Class.

In the early 60's in Stuttgart decided to prepare a replacement for both of these cars. That is, the newcomer with the designation W113 had to be fast, but at the same time not too expensive. Engine and chassis were developed by a team of engineers headed by the author of 300SL Rudolf Uhlenhaut, and the design was worked on by a young French stylist Paul Braque.

The novelty was shown at the Geneva Motor Show in 1963. Elegant two-seat convertible Mercedes-Benz 230SL with a length of only 4.2 meters attracted everyone's attention. Interestingly, in addition to a soft roof, it was offered with a removable metal top. Since the rigid roof resembled Chinese pagodas with its curves, the car was immediately nicknamed Pagoda.

There were interesting details in the design like independent suspension of all wheels or front disk brakes. In addition, developed zones of body deformation, designed to take the impact energy away from the passenger compartment - in the 60's it was a rarity. In-line 2.3-liter "six" with fuel injection developed 150 hp and allowed to reach 200 km/h with both 5-speed manual and 4-speed automatic transmission. Of course, the interior was decorated with leather, and among the options were power steering and air conditioning.

Mercedes-Benz 230SL was immediately appreciated and it showed itself well in the races - won the rally-marathon "Spa-Sofia-Liege". At the end of 1966, the 250SL version was prepared: the power of the new 2.5-liter engine remained the same, but the maximum torque increased from 196 to 216 N∙m. A year later, a 170-horsepower Mercedes-Benz 280SL was presented, capable of accelerating to 100 km/h in 8.8 seconds. The family W113 was produced until 1971, and during this time almost 49 thousand convertibles were collected. Among the famous owners of the model are pilots of "Formula 1" Stirling Moss and David Coulthard, actors John Travolta and Sophia Loren, the leader of The Beatles John Lennon. And in 1997, the convertible became the hero of the cult movie "Reach for Heaven".

The Pagoda was replaced by a new model R107, which was offered not only as a convertible (SL), but also as a coupe (SLC). The design became more solid, and interior trim - richer. Although the car was built on a shortened platform of the sedan E-Class (W114), engines were borrowed from the flagship S-Class. Therefore, along with the familiar 2.8-liter "six" there appeared V8 with the volume of 3.5 liters (200 hp) and 4.5 liters (225 hp). Maximum speed of the most powerful version reached 217 km/h, but since the car became larger heavier by 200 kg, the dynamics of acceleration remained at the level of the predecessor. Rear brakes became disc brakes, and front brakes - ventilated.

After the end of the fuel crisis in 1980, there was a version of 500 SL with a 5.0 "eight" (240 hp), able to accelerate to 100 km / h in 7.6 seconds and reach 225 km / h. In addition, for Mercedes-Benz for a surcharge offered anti-lock brakes ABS. A year later, the coupe was removed from production due to low demand, but the convertible was produced until 1989. For 18 years, more than 300 thousand SL and SLC of various modifications were produced - six times more than the previous generation models.

Mercedes-Benz SL of the third generation (index R129) became the embodiment of technologies of those years - it received airbags, stabilization system, adaptive shock absorbers, electric drive and heated seats, climate control, CD-changer. Coupe was separated into a separate model, so the SL again became exclusively a convertible. Although, as before, an optional hard top was offered. The platform of reliable Mercedes-Benz E-Class (W124) was hidden under the strict angular body.

In addition to the initial 3.0-liter 190-horsepower "six" offered 5.0-liter V8 with an output of 322 hp and even 6.0-liter 394-hp V12. Soon the palette of motors was significantly expanded: included as economical V6 with a volume of 2.8 and 3.2 liters, and high-speed versions from AMG. The most extreme Mercedes-Benz SL73 AMG with 7.3-liter 525-horsepower V12 from Pagani Zonda accelerated to 100 km/h in 4.7 seconds.

The 2001 Mercedes-Benz SL (R230) combined the features of a coupe and a convertible, because it had an electrically folding metal roof. Design became more elegant and graceful. The base SL350 was equipped with a 3.5-liter 245-horsepower V6, but for the most expensive SL65 AMG was prepared 6.0-liter twin-turbocharged V12 with 612 hp. For the first time for SL offered DVD-player, TV tuner, active air suspension and 7-speed automatic transmission. The SL65 AMG Black Series was a limited version of the SL65 AMG: available with a special coupe body and a 670-horsepower V12 that could go up to 320 km/h.

In 2012, the fifth generation Mercedes-Benz SL (R 231) was presented. It became not only more powerful than its predecessor (up to 630 hp), but also lighter and more economical. Its rigid roof was made transparent and with a variable degree of tinting, and in the headrests of the seats there are nozzles for blowing the neck with warm air.

The new SL was developed in Mercedes-AMG, which is immediately noticeable by the trademark "mouth" of the radiator grille. The return to the fabric roof made the convertible lighter. For the first time the automobile became four-seater. At first it is offered only with 4.0-liter turbocharged V8 with an output of 476-585 hp, but later they promise a hybrid version with an output of over 800 hp.

 

Alfa Romeo 33 Stradale

Alfa Romeo 33 Stradale

If you hear distinct sporty notes in the car's voice, it's because the 33 Stradale is a road-going version of a racing model. At a glance, however, we see the pure aesthetics of Franco Scaglione's automotive design. Yet the beauty of these shapes has pure racing roots, going back to the mid-60s. This was the heyday of the Sport Prototype championship, when there was a fierce battle between Porsche and Ferrari in the 2-liter category.

Alfa Romeo began designing a new car to compete in these events, which was to debut in 1967, only in 1964. Although the creation of such a car in Milan was thought about and earlier. Back in 1961-62 in the Directorate of Alfa Romeo wanted to build a 2-liter sports-racing model, which would have the characteristics to dominate in its class. It was envisioned that 100 of these cars would be produced.

Giuseppe Busso (Alfa's chief engineer) and Orazio Satta Puliga (head of Alfa's Project Department) immediately announced that the car would be rear-engined. It should be said that at that time, the Alfa Romeo Directorate, which wanted to surprise the market, proposed to create a car with a large number of cylinders - 12 or even 16 - which was impossible in the layout with a maximally moved backward driver's seat. Bousseau and Puliga managed to convince the Directorate to abandon the fantasy of a multi-cylinder engine and settle on a V8 layout.

The final impetus for the car was a famous incident at the Sebring race in 1964. Then, on March 21, 1964, Ford Cobra rammed standing in the boxes Consalvo Sanesi on Alfa Romeo TZ, the car caught fire and he was barely managed to get out of the fire. For Giuseppe Busso, the Alfa TZ was already losing its relevance (due to the delay in the start of production) - and he thought about a more modern car.

On April 26, the Targa Florio race was held, and TZ finished third and fourth, ahead of such monsters as Ferrari, Maserati, Ford Cobra, Abarth, ATS, but missing the two mid-engined Porsche prototypes. It was then that Busso finally decided to create a rear-engined car - i.e. a layout that was at the time beginning to be revived and was already being used in Formula and sports prototypes.

As usual Puliga, who for Busso became more a friend than a manager, did not object to the creation of such a car and in September 1964 Giuseppe began to develop a beautiful two-liter spyder with an 8-cylinder engine. Of course, Giuseppe Busso didn't work alone - his team included top-notch engineers with whom he developed the 1900, Matta, 3000CM, Giulietta, 6C 2600, TZ, Giulia, 33, Scarabeo, Montreal, Alfetta, and Alfa 6.

To be more specific, the team consisted of: Busso himself as the immediate team leader, his two assistants - engineers Erwin Landsberg and Edo Masoni , the designers who worked at the drawing board - Angelo Villa in charge of the motors and Bruno Zava in charge of the rest of the mechanics, engineers Eugenio Nioocchi and Pierangelo Antonini who performed the necessary calculations on calculators, and a group of young assistants including Luigi Cucinotta and Ernesto Genta. This team, which was officially called Progettazioni e delle Esperienze, was supervised by Orazio Satta Puliga, and it was thanks to him that the team remained unchanged until 1974, when Satta passed away. It must be said that by then Satta was familiar with mid-engined designs, having been to the 1958 Italian Grand Prix, where he was impressed by the English Cooper, a small and light mid-engined design.

According to the idea of Busso and Satta, their new car was to be frankly spartan, able to fight for the top places in the two-liter class, but at the same time there was also a possibility to equip the novelty with a decent finish - so that in this version it could be used by lovers of high-speed cars even for daily trips. In any case, Busso had no illusions about all kinds of support during the creation, as the final word was for the president of Alfa Romeo Giuseppe Luraghi.

At the beginning of 1964, the company began to actively support motorsport. After the sporting successes of the Giulietta model with a lightweight body from Zagato, it was decided to carry out a similar operation to reduce the weight of the body, but already with the Giulia. It was then that the story of the car with the big A in its name - i.e. "alleggerita", "lightweight" - began, which was added to the already existing GT ("Gran Turismo"), giving the GTA.

The car was fitted with a 1954 Busso-designed twin-shaft motor, which had already gone through a period of childhood illnesses. On the GTA to this motor added twin ignition, with two plugs per cylinder - a system created by Busso for the TZ2 and which was produced until the mid-90's, having managed to disperse about 3 million copies. As for the body, its weight was reduced by more than 200 kg compared to the base version.

The GTA was unveiled in Amsterdam in February 1965, the management of the sports program was handed over to the newly established Autodelta - and as we now know, the car was a huge success. A month later, at a board meeting to secure the start-up of Autodelta's new factory in Settimo Milanese, management approved a reduction in effort while working on the TZ2 in favor of the GTA. At the same time, Busso received approval to build a mid-engined car.

The scheme of the new car was far from revolutionary: 8-cylinder engine, located in the center, front and rear suspension on double triangular arms, six-speed gearbox. When creating the chassis, Bousseau used the ideas of the great French designer Jean Albert Gregoire, who in the 40s, in collaboration with the company Aluminium Francais, created a car with the same name, in which the front part of the supporting structure, including the frame of the windshield, was made of cast aluminum of small thickness. Grégoire's ideas were not widely implemented in production at the time, even though they were used in the Dyna Panhard a few years later.

But in the new Alfa Romeo, the original meaning of using cast alloy has been completely changed. You could say that the ideas embodied in Aluminium Francais showed what could be achieved when working with cast aluminum. For Bousseau, this was the starting point, as he wanted to work with a material even lighter than aluminum - magnesium. He made numerous visits to the French Fonderie de Precision of Nanterre and Magnesium Industriel, located in the suburbs of Paris. His main goal was to create a magnesium alloy Elektron monoblock for the front of the chassis, which was delivered to the Test Department in July 1965.

The casting of this monoblock and the two suspension-bearing rear "arms", made of "electron", was then the responsibility of the alloy wheel manufacturer Campagnolo. The rest of the chassis consisted of 3 large Peraluman aluminum alloy tubes - 1520 mm long, 2.5 mm thick and 20 cm in diameter each - which were connected to each other at the rear behind the seats in the shape of an asymmetrical H. Inside the side tubes were fuel tanks with a total capacity of 98 liters, which were obtained by a special process: rubber was injected inside, adhered to a metal surface and polymerized, ensuring airtightness. To learn this process, technicians from Aeronautica Sicula, which was responsible for the manufacture of the tubes, were trained in the UK by an aviation company. The assembled landing gear weighed only 55 kilograms. Despite this, Bousseau's idea was no more successful than Gregoire's: only the first examples of the 33 used such a scheme, which was later revised by Autodelta.

The new car received the internal designation Tipo 105.33. The first 105.33, but still with the old 4 cylinder engine from the TZ2 model (4 cylinders, 2 plugs per cylinder, dry sump, 1570 cc, 170 hp at 7500 rpm), left the workshops for the factory on January 8, 1966. January 14, 1966 - began the first tests of the car on the track in Balocco.

That same evening, Bussaud was in for a huge disappointment. One of Alfa Romeo managers - Livio Nicolis - on the initiative of Luraga (company president) transferred the Tipo 105.33 project (i.e. the car, all parts for the 8-cylinder engine, as well as documentation) to Autodelta. This happened just before the 8 cylinder engine, designed and built by Alfa Romeo, was due to go through bench testing. The only consolation for Busso, Satta, Nicolis and the mechanics who had been with the company since the 159 was a cake and champagne buffet hosted by Luraghi in the Design and Testing Department to "celebrate" the creation of the car.

This photo shows the moment the car was handed over to Autodelta on January 14, 1966. At the wheel of the prototype is the test driver Consalvo Sanesi, next to Giuseppe Busso. Carlo Chiti, one of the founders of Autodelta, watches from a booth in the background. After the 105.33 was delivered to Autodelta with the incomplete engine, work began on the assembly of the engine, which was already installed on the test stand in the workshops of Settimo Milanese on February 25, 1966, and on May 28 the complete car was tested on the track in Balocco. In the Autodelta workshops several copies of the car were built in different variants of modifications, which were tested by the Alfa Romeo Design Department.

 

Lincoln Continental

Lincoln Continental

Analyzing Cadillac's successes, Lincoln marketers came to the conclusion that one of the competitor's secrets lies in the heredity of design. Indeed, from generation to generation, the look and spirit of the Cadillac brand was inherited much more clearly than that of the constantly experimenting Lincoln. However, Lincoln had in its arsenal the very distinctive and successful styling of the original Continental, also passed on to the Mark II but lost afterward. And the designers turned to the same source of inspiration once again. By the way, originally, the car with Continental aesthetics of 1961 was designed as a Ford Thunderbird, but the management of the corporation saw the possibility of a better use of the innovative design as the flagship model of Lincoln. Or, more accurately, the only Lincoln model, since with its introduction all previous models were discontinued.

The new Lincoln Continental (without any suffixes in the name) was 40 cm shorter than the Mark V because the plant for their production primarily produced the Ford Thunderbird and it was not profitable to re-equip it for the assembly of larger cars. This purely economic decision turned out to be an ingenious one, as Continental had to be made convincingly prestigious without resorting to a banal increase in dimensions. Flat body panels without any decoration, laconic chrome strip at the top, minimal size side windows, swinging doors and reduced by 7 cm total height of the car did not just look good - the new Continental made obsolete all garish designs of Cadillac and Imperial, setting the fashion for the next decade and a half! Instead of 12 body styles and configurations in 1960, Lincoln had only two - a 4-door hardtop and a 4-door convertible, the last production car of its kind in world history until today.

With the new Continental, Lincoln's sales successfully increased every year. Also every year, according to the tradition of those years, minor changes were made in the design, but a significant restyling was made only in 1966. And the continuity of style was quite obvious. At the same time, a 2-door hardtop was added to the range, and a year earlier, by the way, there was another super-expensive exclusive - the first in the world serial stretch limousine Lincoln Continental Executive Limousine authorized by Lincoln for sale through dealers of the brand, for the assembly of which the company Lehmann-Petersen was responsible. However, the production of 4-door convertibles was canceled after 1967 due to low demand, and in 1970 the sales of stretch limousines ended, because Ford decided not to continue the contract with Lehmann-Petersen.

But, in 1970, the next generation Lincoln Continental finally appeared. In full accordance with earlier conclusions about Cadillac's success, the continuity of styling with the previous generation was quite obvious, but the overall design became much more "typically American" in spirit. Instead of a load-bearing body, the car shared a conventional frame platform with the cheaper Mercury Marquis, thus allowing for significant production savings. And the car also grew in size, now fully competing with Cadillac. Just to compete with the flagship Cadillac Fleetwood Brougham, Lincoln had a rich set of Continental Town Car, and since 1973, the two-door hardtop received a similar option Town Coupe. In general, the 1970s were a difficult period for the American automobile industry, but it was during this period that the largest, largest and most "American" in its redundancy designs appeared. And so it was with Lincoln - in particular, the Continental of 1977-79 with a length of 5918 mm remained the largest cars in the history of Ford Corporation. After that came the era of "shrinkage", but that's another story.

 

Jaguar XJ13

Jaguar XJ13

In mid-1955, a team of Jaguar engineers got to work on the ambitious development of a V12 racing engine. The work, led by Claude Bailey, continued for a long eight years. In 1964, the first working prototype of a 5.0-liter V12 engine with a 60-degree aluminum cylinder block camber and a compression ratio of 10.4:1 was tested. The engine showed the following characteristics - power output of 502 hp at 7600 rpm, torque of 523 Nm at 6300 rpm and engine weight of 294 kg. The car for the new engine was prepared by 1966. It received the in-house designation Jaguar XJ13.

The car received a mid-engine layout and was designed for the new V12, which was included in the power frame and was part of the chassis, five-speed manual transmission was located behind the engine and transmitted torque to the rear wheels of the car. The front suspension was the same as the E-type, with the torsion bars replaced by conventional springs, while the rear suspension had no subframe and used single shock absorbers instead of the twin shock absorbers on the Jaguar E-type.

Unfortunately, the XJ13 never raced and became a museum piece for enthusiasts. Its shape became another Malcolm Sawyer masterpiece. Keeping true to tradition, this model became one of the most beautiful cars and a lasting tribute to this outstanding engineer who died suddenly in 1970.

 

Ferrari 365 GTB/4 ‘Daytona’

Ferrari 365 GTB/4 ‘Daytona’

The Ferrari 365 series was introduced in the late 60's and produced until the early 70's. In most cases, the 365 was powered by a 4390cc Columbo SOHC V12 4390cc engine with three Weber 300hp carburetors, independent lever-type front and rear suspension. The 365 GT4 2+2 version was equipped with double wishbone independent spring suspension of parallelogram type. The ladder-type frame made of oval tubes was a very reliable chassis structure.

Disc brake system, as well as five-speed manual transmission were installed on all trucks of this series. Most cars came with power steering and air conditioning as standard equipment. When many manufacturers, such as Lamborghini and DeTomaso, began building center-engine cars, Ferrari continued to incorporate proven front-engine technology.

In 1967, Ferrari snatched the top three prizes at the 1967 24 Hours of Daytona race. At the 1968 Paris Motor Show, the public and the press awaited the arrival of a new Berlinetta-type Ferrari called the "Daytona". The unveiled car was called the 365 GTB/4, however, it is still known as the Daytona.

Between 1968 and 1974, 1,383 Pinifarina-bodied 365 GTB/4 Daytona cars rolled off the assembly line. The famous Pininfarina coachbuilder designed the bodywork for most of the 365 series Ferraris, with some design elements inherited from its predecessors, the 330 GTC and 275 GTS models, headlights similar to the 500 Superfast. The result was a stunning car with proven Ferrari performance. GT - Gran Turismo. GTB - Berlinetta coupe type. GTS - open-top models: targa and convertible. "4" - four-cam engine. "C" - Competizione or Corsa, designed for racing.

In 1966, Ferrari introduced the 365 California at the Geneva Motor Show, which was the successor to the Ferrari 500 Superfast. The body was designed by the famous Pininfarina. The car was a two-door two-seat convertible. 365 inherited from the predecessor five-speed gearbox, chassis and suspension. The front end of the car is similar to the 500 Superfast, the rest is unique. With a top speed of 240 km/h, it was the fastest convertible in the world at the time. Disc brakes provided stopping power for the 1,300 kg car. The 365 California was produced for only one year, with 14 examples coming off the assembly line. In 1967, Ferrari introduced the 365 GT 2+2, the second production of the four-seater, which lasted until 1971, with a production run of 800 examples.

Limited capacity to passengers sitting in the back, practically did not bring inconvenience. Performance and comfort are the main characteristics of the auto. To top it all off, the car was equipped with power windows, leather interior, power brakes, carpeted flooring and air conditioning.

The 365 GTC made its debut in late 1968, and production continued through 1970. 168 examples were built throughout the production run. The 365 GTC was based on the 330 GTC with a SOHC 4390 cc. V12. Externally, the car was almost an exact copy of its predecessor, except for the absence of air ducts on the front fenders, instead the air ducts were located on the hood. 365 GTS was a replacement of the 330 GTS. Under the hood of the car there was a 4390 cc. SOHC. A total of 20 copies came off the assembly line.

In 1971, the 365 GTC/4 debuted to replace the 365 GT 2+2. The body of this car was "planted" on the Daytona chassis and was equipped with independent suspension. The gearbox was located in front, the engine was 4390 cc. V12 engine with six Weber carburetors with wet sump (lubrication system) produced 340 hp. The design was developed by Pininfarina. The two-door 2+2 coupe car was equipped with headlight elevator, and five-spoke wheels. Only 500 examples were made, and production continued until 1972.

The 365 GT4 2+2 debuted at the 1972 Paris Motor Show, replacing the 365 GT 2+2 and 365 GTC/4. The body sat on top of the enlarged 365 GTC/4 chassis, which added space to the interior. The development of the body was done by Pininfarina. The design was different from the previous 365 models. Production lasted until 1976. 470 examples were created throughout the production cycle.

The 365 GT4 BB, which stands for Berlinetta Boxer, was presented to the public at the 1971 Turin Motor Show. The 12-cylinder opposition engine was mounted longitudinally. The gearbox was integrated under the engine. This was a good idea, but it led to uneven weight distribution, resulting in poor handling and no good racing results.

 

AC Cobra 289

AC Cobra 289

AC COBRA is a sports car that was produced in England in the 1960s. This sports car immediately announced itself with loud victories at races.

This car set a speed record, which could not be beaten for a long time. It happened thanks to the legendary racer and mechanic Carroll Shelby, who realized the installation of a reinforced eight-cylinder engine from Ford Fairlane in the car. Initial output was 260 hp, but was soon substantially increased to 335 hp. The AC COBRA then took first place in AC competition, beating the Chevrolet Corvette and even a competing Ferrari.

The main factory produced 1,137 units. In 1968, due to the difficult economic situation that prevailed at the company, production was stopped. But the legendarity of this model made indifferent fans among the management of Autocraft, which contributed to the resumption of production at the Shelby plant. The annual production volume was about 250 units.

At the end of the 20th century, the company released the fourth generation of these cars - Shelby Cobra MK - IV. The basic models had a body made of fiberglass, but there was an opportunity to order a body made of aluminum or carbon fiber. The new six-liter engine made the car much more powerful. It accelerates to 100 km/h in 3.3 seconds.

 

The Best-Looking Cars of the 1960s - VOTING

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